GB/T 358392018 (GB/T358392018)
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Nondestructive testing  Test method for measuring industrial computed tomography (CT) density

GB/T 358392018
 Valid 
GB/T 358392018

GB/T 358392018: PDF in English (GBT 358392018) GB/T 358392018
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 19.100
J 04
Nondestructive testing  Test method for measuring
industrial computed tomography (CT) density
ISSUED ON: FEBRUARY 06, 2018
IMPLEMENTED ON: SEPTEMBER 01, 2018
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Terms and definitions ... 4
4 Basic requirements ... 4
5 Test method ... 6
6 Test technology ... 8
7 Measurement process ... 10
8 Test record and report ... 12
Appendix A (Informative) Fabrication specifications of the density comparison
test specimen ... 13
Appendix B (Informative) Mass attenuation coefficient of typical substances
under different energies ... 15
Appendix C (Informative) Calculation method of equivalent energy ... 16
Nondestructive testing  Test Method for Measuring
Industrial Computed Tomography (CT)
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the methods to use industrial computed tomography
(CT) to measure the density of objects.
This Standard is applicable to industrial CT systems, of which the energy range
is 200keV ~ 10 MeV, and which perform densitymeasurement of common
metal and nonmetallic materials.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For dated references, only the dated version applies to this document. For
undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this
document.
GB/T 9445 Nondestructive testing  Qualification and certification of NDT
personnel (GB/T 94452015, ISO 09712:2012, IDT)
GB/T 29069 Nondestructive testing. Test method for measurement of
industrial computed tomography (CT) system performance
GB/T 29070 Nondestructive testing. Industrial computed tomography (CT)
testing. General requirements
GB/T 34365 Nondestructive testing. Terminology. Terms used in industrial
computed tomography testing
3 Terms and definitions
Terms and definitions determined by GB/T 34365 and the following ones are
applicable to this document.
4 Basic requirements
4.1 Test personnel
4.1.1 Personnel engaged in industrial CT density measurement shall meet the
ρ  density value of the tobetest sample, in grams per cubic centimeter
(g/cm3);
µ  linear attenuation coefficient;
µm  mass attenuation coefficient.
This method requires the mass attenuation coefficient of a known substance;
THEREFORE, it cannot measure a substance of an unknown component or a
polymer substance which is difficult to measure the mass attenuation coefficient.
The mass attenuation coefficient is different under different energies;
THEREFORE, the equivalent energy of the CT system needs to be determined
first when this method is used. See Appendix C for the calculation method of
equivalent energy. When the equivalent energy is 200 keV ~ 2 MeV, the mass
attenuation coefficient hardly changes with the change of energy. THEREFORE,
if the mass attenuation coefficient of the tobetest substance is unknown,
THEN, the mass attenuation coefficient of a known substance which has similar
density can be used instead.
5.2 Method 2
Select a density standard sample in the density comparison test specimens as
the density reference sample of density measurement. According to the
average CT density of the specified area of the density reference sample
AND the proportionality coefficient K which is set by the CT system (generally
1000 ~ 5000 according to the overall parameters of the CT system), perform
normalization to the average CT density of the designated area of each
density comparison test specimen according to Formula (3), so as to obtain the
average CT value in the area:
Where:
 average CT number of the specified area of the density comparison test
specimen;
 average CT density of the specified area of the density comparison test
specimen;
 average CT density of the specified area of the density standard sample;
K  proportionality coefficient that is set by the CT system.
Use the average CT number of the specified area of each density
comparison test specimen AND the known density ρ of the standard sample;
detection, errors which are introduced by CT artifacts and ray hardening shall
be minimized; the measurement range shall be selected to avoid the areas
which are affected by artifacts; and the selected pixels shall be valid pixels; if
necessary, filtering shall be used to remove invalid pixels.
7.3 Density measurement
7.3.1 Select the same density reference sample that is used in the density
calibration (the density comparison test specimen that is closest to the density
of the tobetest substance); place the density reference sample near the test
area of the tobetest object to perform CT scan, at the same time, as the
measured object; or place the density reference sample individually at the same
scanning position (with the test area of the tobetest object), and use the same
processing parameters as the tobetest object, to scan the density comparison
test specimen separately.
7.3.2 CT scanning process conditions of density measurement, such as
specimen placement, scanning mode, scanning parameters (tube voltage, tube
current, focus size, filtering method, slice thickness, diameter of the field of view,
scan matrix, sampling time, etc.) and reconstruction parameters, shall be
exactly the same as those of the density comparison test specimens.
7.3.3 In consideration of the stability of the equipment itself, in the actual
detection process, according to the situation, periodically rescan the density
comparison test specimen; determine the change of the CT value of the density
comparison test specimen; if necessary, modify the functional relation between
the CT number and the density, so as to improve the detection accuracy.
7.3.4 Obtain the average CT density of the specified area (the number of
pixels in the specified area should not be less than 100 and not more than 2/3
of the entire standard sample image area) from the CT image of the density
reference sample.
7.3.5 Obtain the average CT density of the tobetest area (the number of
pixels in the area should be not less than 100) from the CT image of the tobe
test object. If Method 2 is used to perform the density measurement, perform
normalization according to Formula (3) to obtain the average CT number of
the tobetest area.
7.3.6 Obtain the average material density of the area according to the average
CT number of tobetest area and the calibrated functional relation.
7.3.7 Repeat the measurement of different areas of the same uniform material
for at least 5 times; use the average value of the densities which were measured
from 5 times as the density value of the material; and calculate the standard
deviation of the density measurement.
Appendix C
(Informative)
Calculation method of equivalent energy
C.1 Calculation process
C.1.1 Set the detection parameter to the highest density resolution, and use
industrial CT to detect the density comparison test specimen.
C.1.2 For the measurement of the average CT number of each density standard
sample of the density comparison test specimens in a certain range (the
measurement range should be a circular area; the number of pixels in each
circular area should be no less than 100, but no more than 2/3 of the entire
standard sample image area; the number of measurements should not be less
than 5), it is recommended to use the least squares to establish the functional
relation [Formula (1)] between the average CT number and the linear
attenuation coefficient;
C.1.3 Multiply the density of each sample by the mass attenuation coefficient to
obtain the linear attenuation coefficient μ1 of the sample, and respectively select
the mass attenuation coefficient of a set of energy ranges (the range shall
include the equivalent energy of the system) to calculate the linear coefficient
of each sample, so as to obtain the linear attenuation coefficient of each sample
at different energies.
C.1.4 Use the functional relation [Equation (1)] to calculate the linear
attenuation coefficient μ2 of each sample; respectively calculate the correlation
coefficient BETWEEN the linear attenuation coefficient μ1 AND the linear
attenuation coefficient μ2 under different energies.
C.1.5 Select the energy corresponding to the maximum value of the correlation
coefficient as the equivalent energy of the CT system.
C.2 Calculation example
Use the industrial CT system of 9 MeV to measure the density of three
substances, namely methyl methacrylate (H8C5O2), tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4)
and aluminum (aluminum, Al); and respectively measure the average CT
number of the three substances; use the least squares to calculate the
coefficients k and c of Formula (1); THEN use Formula (1) to calculate the linear
attenuation coefficient μ1 of each substance; check the table to gain the mass
attenuation coefficient of each substance at 3 700 keV ~ 4 000 keV; THEN
multiply the corresponding density to gain the linear attenuation coefficient μ2
...... (Above excerpt was released on 20140420, modified on 20210607, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.) Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT358392018
