Bacillus thuringiensis

eyrops

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Morrisville, Pennsylvania
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Steve Morse
I have been interested in using [FONT=&quot]Bacillus thuringiensis [/FONT][FONT=&quot]in an outdoor amphibian setup to kill mosquito larvae. Mosquitoes have become more than a nuisance issue in many portions of the US because they have the potential to be carriers of West Nile virus, which can be serious and occasionally fatal for humans. I recently read of a New York City resident who was fined about $300 for operating a birdbath. While this incident is certainly not typical today in most places, the mentality that created it is on the rise. I believe that controlling mosquitoes in some manner is a responsibility of a hobbyist setting up an outdoor amphibian enclosure. One method would be to stock an organism that would eat the mosquito larvae. This may be a viable approach if the right organism for the particular setup can be found. I am not discussing this approach here. A second approach could be to use a pesticide that targets mosquito[/FONT][FONT=&quot]es without being detrimental to the amphibians. One possibility for this is the bacteria[/FONT][FONT=&quot]Bacillus thuringiensis[/FONT][FONT=&quot]. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]These bacteria can be deadly to mosquitoes and many other insects, and is commonly claimed to be allowable under the “organic” gardening and farming umbrella. But what effect do they have on amphibians? I had not found very much information on Caudata.org or elsewhere. I decided to do a very simple qualitative trial with two [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Rana catesbeiana[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tadpoles.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]I put each in a bucket with about 1 ½ gallons of water. I added a commercia[/FONT][FONT=&quot]l[/FONT][FONT=&quot]Bacillus thuringiensis[/FONT][FONT=&quot]product to one at a visual approximation of the recommended rate. I added some [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Daphnia[/FONT][FONT=&quot] to both buckets. Five days later, both tadpoles are alive, and both buckets contained living [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Daphnia[/FONT][FONT=&quot]. [/FONT][FONT=&quot] Concurrently, I set up two pint jars with mosquito larvae, on with[/FONT][FONT=&quot]Bacillus thuringiensis[/FONT][FONT=&quot], a[/FONT][FONT=&quot]nd one without. The mosquito larva in the jar with the[/FONT][FONT=&quot]Bacillus thuringiensis [/FONT][FONT=&quot]died within 24 hours. There were still a few pupae alive. These were not evident after 48 hours. The larvae in the untreated jar appeared fine.[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]This was a simple qualitative trial, not a quantitative experiment with replicates. It proves nothing except that[/FONT][FONT=&quot]Bacillus thuringiensis[/FONT][FONT=&quot]is not universally fatal to [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Rana catesbeiana[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tadpoles over the short term. I think it does suggest possibilities for more formal experiments. Although it seems cold and calculating, it also seems to me to be work that needs to be done. I hope to learn the experiences of others, and perhaps see some links to scientific papers on the topic posted here.[/FONT]
 

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  • Toothpickthelotl:
    Also, she was fine at the higher temperature. Perfectly healthy and never showed signs of de stress. Just thought it being colder would make her happier and digest a little slower! (She’s a pig :p )
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  • SubZero:
    is it normal for a tiger to jump at you from being the glass
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  • Murk:
    @Paige1warren That should be fine. I wouldn't suddenly put her in very cold water without acclimatisation, but a few degrees over the course of two hours shouldn't be a problem at all.
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  • AlexisJG:
    Is anyone online? I need help badly
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  • AlexisJG:
    I have had my 2 axolotls since June 2020 and I had hoped they would mature the same gender but unfortunately they are not. I am currently on vacation and planned to separate them once I returned, my axolotls are currently being cared for by a friend who knows the basics to care for them properly. A melanoid and a leucistic. I had a feeling but didn't prioritize it enough and now I have many many eggs in the tank with both of my axolotls. I have zero experience with eggs and cannot really care for juvenile axolotls but I really DO NOT want to kill them. What should I do? Are my axolotls okay being in the same tank with them? would the eggs be okay all together in a tank by themselves? Where can I find someone to care for them and hatch them?I'm so stressed and worried I just want the best for them all.
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  • axie owner:
    you are going to have to get a bucket and put the eggs in that. they can hatch anytime between 11 and 20 days. order in brine shrimp eggs and get your friend to watch a video on hatching them. make sure your friend does 100% water changes every day. keep the water around 64digres and make sure your friend sends daily updates on them. i found kitchen salt works for the brine shrimp eggs. hope this helps.
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  • Gots2knowme2:
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  • FP.Foxy:
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  • Toothpickthelotl:
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  • Saturn:
    @Paige1warren, Since you took it out straight away it should be ok but I'd still be doing a big water change. When I was a teen, I took some rocks from outside, washed them (probably in soap) and put them in my turtle tank. He died a week or so later and I've never used any rocks from the garden since because you just don't know what's been on them, such as pesticide and I suppose the mineral composition of the rock comes in to play too. Letting them dry for a few days before adding them also would have helped so you should be fine
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  • Toothpickthelotl:
    @Saturn, okay, thank you so much! Firstly, I’m so sorry about your turtle :(. My lotl seems to be fine, I haven’t noticed any changes or signs of destress. I do 25% weekly water changes (I have a fully cycled tank), but I will do a 50% change today. I hope that everything turns out fine. Axies are pretty good at showing they are not well or stressed so I’m hoping that I got the rocks out fast enough. Thank you again!
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  • Saturn:
    @Paige1warren, Thanks hun and you're absolutely right, axolotls are so sensitive it would've showed signs. Glad your lotl is ok :)
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  • Pookisoo:
    Hii my tiger salamander has a black bump on his head, its looks like a little spot but its forming into a bump and its like making a hole..? You can tell i need help , please help😁
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    Do i just give him a salt bath?
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  • madcaplaughs:
    You need to take him to the vet if there's a hole that's forming in his head.
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  • Tanker:
    New to site. Have a Golden Albino and a Black Melanoid
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  • Tanker:
    Tank size 40 gal. 2 filter pumps /substrate roughed ceramic easy to clean / feed each one night crawler every 3 rd day
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  • Murk:
    Ceramic substrate? That sounds interesting. What should I imagine by that?
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  • AMurry24537:
    Can't say if this is what's being referred to, but I had some ceramic tiles in an aquarium for a while. I used a silicone sealant to secure them to the bottom and to each other. It worked well for about 6 months, but eventually a little water got through my imperfect seal and started creating mold problems
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  • Murk:
    Ooh, tiles of course. I was thinking of those ceramic rings/balls you can buy as filter medium, but tiles make more sense. Thanks
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  • Stacy:
    Hi there, I am a new Axolotl lover & owner of two cuties! They are little over 6 months old now. I have a divider and decided to see how they would be together because they always tried to get to each other threw the border/wall.
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  • JoyJiang:
    Oh shoot wrong thing
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  • JoyJiang:
    Looolllllll
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