Cloaca The glandular area around the [vent]. It is a common opening for the alimentary canal, oviducts and bladder. During breeding season the cloaca of some male caudates may swell due to the enlargement of the cloacal glands.
Papillae Small projections of skin that line the opening of the [cloaca]. Normally associated with glandular swelling during breeding season.
[Caudal] & [Dorsal] fins Extended fins grown on some male caudata during the breeding season. Most markedly seen in the crested newts (Triturus) although they can be seen in others too. The fins are associated with visual, tactile and chemosensory courtship behaviour and are normally combined with the development of bright colours and thus increase the surface area of this colouring.
Mental Glands Circular glands found on the chin of most male plethodontids. These are brought into contact with the female during courtship.
Premaxillary teeth [Sexual diamorphism] found in Plethodontid salamanders whereby males have elongated front teeth which sometimes protruded through the lip. These are used to deliver secretions from the [mental gland] during courtship behaviour.
Nasolabial grooves Grooves found on the face of plethodontids that run from the nose to the mouth. During the breeding season they become elongated and a protuberance grows where the groove meets the lip. Thought to aid male salamanders to “smell” females in the area and avoid other males.
Nuptial Pads Rough keratinized pads found on the chest or limbs of male caudates which allow them to maintain a grip onto the female during [amplexus].
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Hi all I'm new here I'm just looking some advise on cycle witch is currently driving me insane . So we are week 8 I'm dosing daily with 4pp of amonia and for the last week has been dropping to zero witch I no is good. But my question is my nitrites are sitting at between 0.50 and 1.0 PM and nitrates are between 10 and 20 and neither of these seem to be dropping. I have done 2 40% water changes a few days ago and no change the only thing I can think of is I didnt use the seachem stability stuff which I have now ordered but surely that shouldn't have much difference this far into cycling
Dropping ammonia with rising nitrate and nitrite is good. It means the nitrifying bacteria is working. You just have to remove the nitrate from the water doing water changes. The level of nitrates is high and the nitrate is also high. The nitrite will be converted to nitrate using the beneficial bacteria and you can add them using quick start or allowing them to naturally grow in the tank. The latter option will take longer. The nitrate can be used by plants, so live plants can decrease the levels, but I would do a water change to get the nitrate at a level that is lower than 5 ppm. 5ppm of nitrate is natural and a good place.