Substrate - The material at the bottom of the tank. Most terrestrial tanks have a substrate of topsoil, leaf litter, coconut fiber, or a mixture of different types. Aquatic tanks can have a substrate consisting of sand, gravel, river rocks, slate, or some other non-soluble material, which must be catered to the species: appropriate size, natural appearance, etc.
Trivial changes to Kaysie's def., I'd declare this done:
Substrate - The material at the bottom of the tank. Most terrestrial tanks have a substrate of damp paper towels, topsoil, leaf litter, coconut fiber, or a mixture of different materials. Aquatic tanks may have a substrate consisting of sand, gravel, river rocks, slate, or some other non-soluble material. A substrate should be chosen for the needs of the species and the keeper: appropriate size, natural appearance, compatibility with live foods, ease of cleaning, etc.
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Hi all I'm new here I'm just looking some advise on cycle witch is currently driving me insane . So we are week 8 I'm dosing daily with 4pp of amonia and for the last week has been dropping to zero witch I no is good. But my question is my nitrites are sitting at between 0.50 and 1.0 PM and nitrates are between 10 and 20 and neither of these seem to be dropping. I have done 2 40% water changes a few days ago and no change the only thing I can think of is I didnt use the seachem stability stuff which I have now ordered but surely that shouldn't have much difference this far into cycling
Dropping ammonia with rising nitrate and nitrite is good. It means the nitrifying bacteria is working. You just have to remove the nitrate from the water doing water changes. The level of nitrates is high and the nitrate is also high. The nitrite will be converted to nitrate using the beneficial bacteria and you can add them using quick start or allowing them to naturally grow in the tank. The latter option will take longer. The nitrate can be used by plants, so live plants can decrease the levels, but I would do a water change to get the nitrate at a level that is lower than 5 ppm. 5ppm of nitrate is natural and a good place.